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Their emergence, which is one of the signs of the Hour. The citadel contains a number of important archaeological remains, ancient and medieval structures, and even an Islamic bathhouse. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description o the sack o Derbent bi the hordes o Tong Yabghu o the Wastren Turkic Khaganate in 627. Cite This Work The best result they achieved was 4th place in Zone 2, Subgroup 2 of the Soviet Second League in 1969. Derbent’s ancient city, citadel, wall, and other constructions cover an area of around 10 ha, extending additionally outward some 200 ha from there as a buffer zone. 2) The wall in central Asia near Bukhara and Tirmidh in … The modern name, a Persian word meaning “iron gates,” came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, when the city was refounded by Kavadh of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia. Desc: FC Derbent was a Russian football team from Derbent. The Great Wall of China or Gog and Magog wall? Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. In the middle of this passage there is the village piled above him at the top of a high mountain. A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. 3) The wall in Dagestan, Russia also known as Derbent near the Caspian sea. Tuscany panels 5. (16th-century Persian miniature)The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog [citation needed]) from … The city’s population swelled to about 50,000, and the celebrated Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809 CE) even lived in Derbent for a short duration. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. Blessed with a warm climate, Derbent is concurrently Russia’s oldest and southernmost city, and it abords the Caspian Sea. Derbent (English) Дербент (Russ Following the construction of Derbent's fortified walls by Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE), Derbent withstood numerous attacks over the next 300 years by the White Huns, Khazars, and other nomadic tribes that threatened the Persian heartlands. Our forged steel scrolls and panels are available in the following styles: 1. It was the shortest way to get from Bukhara, Samarkand and Chach (Shash) to Bactria and India, and back from India and Bactria to the Central cities of Central Asia. ‘Bring me blocks of iron.’ They did so till, when he had levelled up the space between the two mountain sides, he said, ‘Now blow with your bellows.’ They blew till, when he had made it red as fire, he said, ‘Bring me molten copper that I may pour it thereon.’ Derbent dyĭrbyĕnt´ , city (1989 pop. Enjoy Free Shipping on most stuff, even big stuff. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Curiously, Alexander the Great, has been traditionally associated with Derbent and its fortress; he is said to have ordered the construction to defend his newly conquered lands in the south from the barbarians to the north, but there is no substance to this legend. Last modified October 01, 2018. Derbent. It is near another Derbend in Central asia, Hissar District, about 150 miles south-east of Bukhara. He holds an MA in World History with a particular interest in cross-cultural exchange and world history. The Kurganzol Fortress as it is called is located east of Derbent in Uzbekistan, ... this is the activity of Alexander in building the iron wall as a barrier to the entry of scythian gog magog tribe (yakjuj and makjuj in al-qur'an). as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). Derbent’s old district contains mosques, elegant old homes, and the ruins of a medieval caravanserai. The wall, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been identified with two locations: the Pass of Derbent, Russia or with the Pass of Dariel, west of the Caspian Sea. The Arab writer and historian Ibn-Arabshah called the gate "Qagalgar", in particular, tells in some detail about the battle of Amir Timur with Emir Hussein in this territory. 1) The Great Wall of China which was built by the Chinese King Fagfor 3460 years after Prophet Adam was put on the Earth. 02 Dec 2020. In the "Sogdian rock" he hid during the capture of the Alexander’s attacks of natural fortresses in Sogdiana. VII, pp. Gate of Gates, the Tartars, the Mongols and the Turks as Temir-Kapi, i.e. Durin the 5t an 6t centuries Derbent becomes an important centre for spreadin the Christian faith in the Caucasus an aw. Sadly, one of the southern walls was destroyed in the late 19th century CE. For the district in Konya Province, Turkey, see Derbent, Konya. gorge called Iron Gate - the only year-round passage that supposedly Alexander of Macedon blocked by a gigantic grid to prevent nomadic hordes coming from the north, that from time to time ransacked Sogdiana. Although it was taken once by the Ottoman Turks in 1583 CE following the Persian defeat at the Battle of Torches during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578-1590 CE), it remained in Persian hands until 1813 CE when the Russians occupied and annexed Derbent and Dagestan. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The wall of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia and southern Russia in the Caucasus mountain range. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The Arabs referred to Derbent as Bab-al-Abvab, i.e. And this passageway in the mountains is called the Iron gate, and there is no other passageway in the whole area but this one. It stands on a narrow strip of land that forms a natural pass (the Caspian, or Iron, Gates) between the Caucasian foothills and the sea. "Derbent." For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. James is a writer and former Professor of History. This ancient fortress, during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, was under the control of the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania, which acted as a buffer state between the Romans and the Persians. Wiener, James B. Archaeologists have excavated and discovered such monuments as ancient settlements, the foundation of a medieval caravanserai, and the defensive wall of the Kushan Kingdom. Geography. Related Content Under Persian Safavid rule (1501-1736 CE), Derbent lay close to the frontier region with the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of Gorgan (Red Snake) on its south-eastern shore. They called the city “Bab al-Abwab” or the “Gate of Gates.” They associated the city with Surah Al-Kahf in the Qu'ran, which narrates Alexander the Great's efforts to construct a gigantic iron gate to keep people from the north out of Persia. Wiener, James B. Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. One of the most mysterious places, perhaps, in all of Central Asia – the famous mountain pass - Iron gate, located in the Baysun district on the territory of the village of Derbent. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the Alexander Romance in a version from perhaps the 7th century. It is said that when other powerful nations will come to an end, the Chinese will rise and invade the whole world, eating humans. An even older fortress once existed here, and it was likely built by ancient peoples to withstand incursions from the Scythians. These Iron gates owns señor Tamurbek. During the wall’s construction in the late 6th century CE, the Sasanians employed dry brickwork and made blocks on lime mortar. Think Again, Moscow Says" -- New York Times, "How has Russia’s oldest mosque stood for 1,300 years?" From there they arrived at Derbent and saw the wall. Probably after 508, though the date is disputed, the long fortification walls at Besh Barmak and Šīrvān/Gil’ginchaĭ were constructed in a combination of mud brick, stone blocks, and baked bricks; as they probably served as models for the massive rebuilding of the fortifications at Darband (Khan-Magomedov, 1979, p. 40), their construction serves as a terminus post quem for the latter. In his two poems about the gates of Sogdiana, Alisher Navoi mentioned and Babur in his work "Babur-nameh". The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. Although the area in and around Derbent has been continuously inhabited since at least the 8th century BCE, Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE) of the Persian Sasanian Empire founded Derbent in 438 CE as a fortress city to curb raids from nomadic peoples into the Caucasus from Central Asia. Derbent was a dependable outpost of the Western world and an impregnable fortress perched on a mountaintop. Although we stock standard sizes and popular styles, scrolls can b… 122-125; Mu jam-ul-Buldan: under Bab-ulAbwab). Break Free of the Iron Wall. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary”... Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and... Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and, "Derbent as Russia’s Oldest City? People have long recognized the strategic importance of the area in and around Derbent. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Derbent/. The Dagestani capital, Makhachkala, is located 127.5 km (79 miles) to Derbent's northwest. Dhu l-Qarnayn directs them to bring pieces of iron, which are melted in a fire to form a wall that can neither be scaled nor pierced, barring the way between two cliffs. License. Replies. Derbent became a strang militar ootpost an harbour o the Sassanid empire. This clearly shows that even up till the third century of Hijrah the Muslim scholars regarded this wall of the Caucasus as the wall of Zul-Qarnain. II, p. 111, Vol. A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaDhul-Qarnayn with the help of some jinn, building the Iron Wall to keep the barbarian Gog and Magog from civilized peoples. “C” shaped scrolls 2. Rui Gonzales de Clavijo, a Spanish diplomat and traveler, was passing through this gate. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. ( He is most commonly identified with Alexander the Great). Many Jews, Georgians, and Armenians came to settle in Derbent, giving the city a cosmopolitan flavor in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Era. He saw two folding gates cased with iron and hung with bells. How ever there was omce a Portal to this part of the Domension which is closed by Dhil Qarmain. Derbent’s success as a city & importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. https://www.ancient.eu/Derbent/. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. Aluminum panels 7. Reply. And they bring him a large income every year.". 3. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbent’s harbor. In the Middle ages, the pass occupied an important strategic place, as it was followed by numerous trade caravans and troops. The Arabs were impressed by Derbent's size and wealth, and they greatly appreciated the citadel and the mighty walls of Derbent. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbent’s harbor. An impressive mountain wall acted as a line of defense, spreading over a remarkable 40 km (25 miles) in a westward direction away from Derbent and through the Caucasus Mountains. Ancient History Encyclopedia. B. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Derbent, Baysun, Kashkadarya region, Uzbekistan Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. There is no iron gate there now, but there was one in 7 th century when the Chinese traveler Hiouen Tsiang saw it on his journey to India. The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from invading the land to the south. Cyrus the Great in the Quran is a theory that identifies Dhul-Qarnayn, a figure mentioned in verses 18:83-98 of the Quran, with Cyrus the Great. Derbent remained relatively prosperous as it changed hands from the Arabs to the Seljuk Turks to the Azeris to the Mongols and Timurids, and back to the Persians over the course of seven centuries. Web. Derbent prospered for over 1,500 years under Persian, Arab, Turkish, Azeri, Mongol, Timurid, and Russian rule due to its position on the Silk Road and geostrategic importance as the gateway to the Caucasus. The city of Derbent is located in southern Russia in what is present-day Dagestan. "Derbent." In reality, … Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. English Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it setting in a pool of murky water, and near it he found a people. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. It is also believed that it was in Derbent that Alexander played his wedding with Roxana, a Bactrian Princess. They also constructed the Juma Mosque, the oldest mosque in Russia, in 734 CE over the remains of an old Christian basilica. (AIBidayah Vol. Throughout its ancient and medieval history, Derbent was only one of two crossings through the Caucasus mountain range, and the city attracted the attention of foreign merchants traversing the famed Silk Road as well as the notice of great military powers. (2018, October 01). I follow the traditional view that Yajuj Majuj are humanoids and are enclosed im some orther dimension instead of a place on earth. And there is no other passage to enter the lands of Samarkand except through it; nor can the inhabitants of the Samarkand Empire enter the lands of India except through this passage. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. Reply Delete. UNESCO declared Derbent's citadel, ancient city, and defensive walls to be a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003 CE. There was, however, a brief period of 12 years in which the Russians occupied Derbent from 1723-1735 CE. Under Arab rule, the city flourished as an entrepôt on the Silk Road, and the Arabs consistently strengthened and reinforced Derbent’s walls and citadel during their rule of the city until the late 10th century CE. In Persian, Derbent is formed from the compound of “dar,” meaning “gate,” and “band,” meaning “knot” or “barrier.”. Unknown February 24, 2018 at 5:39 AM. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Originally 73 defense towers were constructed, and 46 of those were located in a portion of Derbent’s northern wall. Books Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and city walls began c. 570 CE at the request of Shah Khosrow I (531-579 CE) who is widely remembered by Persians today as one of their greatest rulers. Iron Gate, the Georgians as Degvis-Kari, i.e. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Cast Iron panels (many different designs) 6. Derbent’s commercial districts lie close to the waterfront and thus between the parallel defense walls. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 01 Oct 2018. The Caucasus Mountains near Derbent are less 3 km (1.8 miles) from the shores of the Caspian Sea, meaning that the mountains almost extend directly to the seashore. Rebecca panels (fancy additions to your interior and exterior) 4. The Iron gate has been repeatedly mentioned in written sources of Chinese, Central Asian, and Arab historians and geographers.In 630, Xuanzang described in his notes the gorge as a defensive passage covered with iron and locked with a double-leaf gate. It was the Greek historian Herodotus who first mentioned Derbent's unusual geographical features in his writings about Scythian activities in the Near East; however, archaeologists working in the 1970s CE have shown that the hilltop on which Derbent's citadel now rests has been settled since the 8th century BCE. Indeed the high wall was so thick that a cart could be driven along its top. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Categories of Revolutionary Military Policy, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, Bonner, M. "Al-KhalÄ«fa Al-Marḍī: The Accession of HārÅ«n Al-RashÄ«d. as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. The modern city center grew near the seafront, and it expanded rapidly in the 20th century CE. 18, Oybek str., Tashkent, 100015, Uzbekistan. The southern region of Uzbekistan is fascinating for its ancient monuments, natural attractions and cultural heritage. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. 2) The wall in Central Asia near Bukhara and Tirmiz in a place called Derbent. We said, ‘O Dhu’l Qarnain, either punish them, or treat them with kindness.’ 78,000), SE European Russia, in Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea. Following to Transoxiana to receive Amir Timur, in his" Diary of a journey to Samarkand to the court of Timur " (1403-1406) gave a detailed description of his journey through the gate: "The next day, Monday, we rested at the foot of a high mountain, on the top of which stood a beautiful cruciform building, elaborately made of brick, with many patterns made up of colored tiles. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. The famous Arab geographer Al-Yaqoubi tells about a 9th-century city in Sughd and also mentions this passage. Later, academician Eduard Rtveladze concluded that the Iron gate is a common name for a whole complex of defensive structures formed from both natural and artificial structures, and they occupied the territory between the Buzgalakhan gorge and the current village of Derbent. A high stone wall ran down from the city towards the seashore, raising an impassible barrier across the road to Iran and the Roman Empire. Thus the expected Yajooj Majooj wall location by some of the Kings in previous times was stated to be The Great Wall of China, built by the Chinese King Fagfor, almost about 3460 years after Prophet Adam was born. ". It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. Enjoy the sale all month long! Cast iron panels Like our balusters, our steel scrolls are made with both round and square material. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. This article is about the city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia. Ancient History Encyclopedia. It should be noted that the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania had also acted as a vassal state to the Roman Empire on several occasions as well. The southern region of Uzbekistan is fascinating for its ancient monuments, natural attractions and cultural heritage. Shop Wayfair.ca this Cyber Week for the best Cyber Week Sales On Stair Tread Rugs. This mountain is very high, but it has a passage through which you can cross it by a cleft that seems to have been made by human hands: high mountains rise on both sides, and it is flat and very deep. Derbent thus was an essential area in the management of the flow of peoples moving to and from the Caucasus. Ancient History Encyclopedia. “S” shaped scrolls 3. Sea Gate, the Russians as Derben, i.e. The Khazars - allied to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641 CE) during the Third Perso-Turkic War (627-629 CE) - attacked and seized Derbent in 627 CE. Wiener, J. One of the most mysterious places, perhaps, in all of Central Asia – the famous mountain pass - Iron gate, located in the Baysun district on the territory of the village of Derbent. Derbent Derbent occupies the western Caspian Sea coast, close to the mouth of Samur River in the South and Rubas River in the North, and the Sukhodol River, which forms the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. He defends the Kingdom of Samarkand from the side of smaler India. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). One of the most interesting conclusions made by the historian Eduard Rtveladze is about the place of refuge on this territory of the father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander the Great - Oxyart. Another Chinese chronicle tells of a city, a temple and an Iron gate that got its name because of it’s color and iron. For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. The Persian Sasanian Empire annexed the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania c. 252-253 CE, rendering it little more than a vassal. -- Russia Beyond the Headlines, "Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting" -- RT, Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent -- UNESCO, 6,511 Miles from Derbent: Matryoshka Stories. Orchards and vineyards are cultivated. Iron Gates of Sogdiana. Derbent is usually identified with Albana, the capital of the ancient Albania. Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. Iron Gate. Written by James Blake Wiener, published on 01 October 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. 4) The wall which is in the westerly direction to the third in the region of the Caucasus. Older fortress once existed here, and the mighty walls of Derbent special geographic location were. The derbent iron wall result they achieved was 4th place in Zone 2, Subgroup 2 of the Domension which is by... Grew near the Caspian sea, rendering it little more than a vassal dimension of!, Turkey, see Derbent, Konya have long recognized the strategic importance of the Domension which is in 6th... Also believed that it was in Derbent that Alexander played his wedding with,... The ruins of a medieval caravanserai the fortress complex of Derbent were made of adobe side of India... 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